India’s telecom sector is one of the largest and fastest growing networks across the world. Communication is now the backbone of India’s digital economy, which includes a host of new businesses such as digital platforms that pervade several sectors of the economy including retail, health, education, entertainment and communication, to name a few. Over time, the level of convergence within the sector has increased considerably with a discernible impact on competition strategies employed by incumbent operators. The study is a fact-finding exercise, tracing the recent evolution of the industry, analysing threats and challenges to competition, identifying strengths and opportunities in the wake of technological innovations and recommending policies that will secure growth in the future. The research adopts mixed methods, using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data is collected and analysed from published reports and other online resources to present industry trends such as revenue growth, market concentration ratios, financial health and profitability. The analysis is further complemented by stakeholder interactions including operators, equipment manufacturers, content companies, academics, sector experts, business associations and government departments. The research is bolstered by a careful review of all relevant policies and regulations that currently govern the sector, and their potential to impact competition in the future.