Technology Roadmap for Electric Vehicle (EV) Battery Recycling: Ensuring Circularity of EV Battery Supply Chain

The widespread adoption of electric vehicles powered by batteries is crucial for significantly reducing transportation emissions. Shifting to EVs will drive up the demand for vital raw materials like lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, and phosphorus, essential for producing the batteries that power these vehicles. The use of newly mined virgin minerals adds to the emissions associated with these vehicles. India faces challenges such as heavy reliance on imports, uncertain political and economic relations with neighbouring countries, and fluctuations in mineral prices as it moves towards green mobility.

With the growing demand for batteries and limited access to raw materials, there is a pressing need to ensure circularity within the EV battery supply chain, especially recycling. Unlocking the potential of battery recycling is crucial for sustainable development and environmental protection, given the targets for e-mobility transition. Currently, the recycling infrastructure for EV batteries is underdeveloped in India, leading to many batteries being disposed of in landfills or informal recycling units, posing environmental hazards.

The objective of this study is to present a sustainable approach framework to policymakers, investors, and industry stakeholders aiming to establish a sustainable supply chain for efficient battery material recycling. This framework encompasses (a) sustainable utilization of critical raw materials, (b) identification of appropriate technologies for battery recycling, and (c) the creation of a robust battery recycling ecosystem.