Towards Functioning Land and Housing Market for the Urban Poor

Objective. The study seeks to understand the supply dynamics and its challenges for urban poor housing in Bhubaneswar and Kochi. The idea here is to build a knowledgebase on the functioning and traits of the small/petty builders and other stakeholders operating in the informal private housing market; identifying various bottlenecks and recommending appropriate incentives for enhancing housing supply. It also aims to undertake in depth review of affordable housing land tenure models prevalent across India. The idea is to weave in learnings from international case studies that will be analysed parallelly as a part of the research. Following the assessment of shortcomings of land tenure models in the two study cities, the project aims to recommend alternate land tenure models that will be suitable for the cities on Kochi and Bhubaneshwar.


  1. Review of affordable housing policies in India as well as cities of global south. It further analyses the various policies affecting supply of land and affordable housing and through secondary research and interaction with various stakeholders.
  2. Understand the intricacies of housing supply in informal private market and identify its various challenges ranging from institutional, financial, regulatory and market related.
  3. Develop an informal supplier continuum that can be identified in any typical global south city.
  4. Case study of land tenure policies in the cities of global south.
  5. Conduct ethnographic fieldwork in Kochi and Bhubaneswar.


Some of the key outputs developed under work package I & II of this grant include:

  • WP I: Training module on Informal housing supply continuum.
  • WP I: KP-1: Decoding private informal housing market for the urban poor: Learnings from Bhubaneswar & Kochi
  • WP II: KP-1: Alternative to individual property rights in the informal settlements/slums
  • WP II: KP-2: Alternatives to individual property rights in informal settlements in Bhubaneswar & Kochi (Part-II)