This study analyses the environmental and financial sustainability of solid waste management in Indian cities. It presents an assessment of the rapidly rising volume of municipal solid waste, its changing composition, the continuing practice of mixing biodegradable (wet) waste with dry waste at the source of generation, and the growing volume of plastic in the waste. The present system is focussed on collection and transportation of largely mixed
unsegregated waste. Resource recovery from the waste and safe disposal of the residual waste in scientifically designed landfills are grossly neglected. Rules have now been put in place for sustainable solid waste management, but the capacity to plan and manage the system and ensure the enforcement of the rules is a major challenge.