This paper has been prepared by the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER); the WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities; the New Climate Economy (NCE), flagship project of the Global Commission on the Economy and the Climate; and the Coalition for Urban Transitions, an NCE Special Initiative. The paper was prepared in partnership with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Global Spatial Research Program on Spatial Development of Cities at the World Bank. This report draws from a wider research project including four forthcoming research papers as well as expert consultations. The wider project team comprises: Meenu Tewari (UNC, ICRIER), Rajat Kathuria (ICRIER), Ani Dasgupta (WRI), Milan Brahmbhatt (NCE), Nick Godfrey (NCE, Coalition for Urban Transitions), Anil Markandya (ICRIER), Simon Alder (UNC), Mark Roberts (World Bank), Katie McWilliams (World Bank), Srikanth Shastry (WRI), Indro Ray (ICRIER), Aarsi Sagar (ICRIER), Zeba Aziz (ICRIER), Madhav Pai (WRI), Sahana Goswami (WRI), Anjali Mahendra (WRI), Apurba Chatterjee (WRI), Anirudh Tagat (WRI), Sandeep Paul (ICRIER), Todd Litman (Victoria Transport Policy Institute), Kyle Onda (UNC), Alexander Pearson (UNC), Ehtisham Ahmad (London School of Economics), Helen Mountford (NCE), Ferzina Banaji (NCE), Annie Lefebure (NCE), Joel Jaeger (NCE), Ian de Cruz (NCE), Cory Rand (NCE) and Rachel Waddell (NCE). This synthesis paper has been prepared by Meenu Tewari (UNC, ICRIER) and Nick Godfrey (NCE, Coalition for Urban Transitions). Assistance was ably provided by Milan Brahmbhatt (NCE), Anjali Mahendra (WRI), Srikanth Shastry (WRI) and Mark Roberts (World Bank).