his paper tries to establish the interrelation between the energy sector and the net zero emission goal, focusing on India’s pathways to a low carbon future. It discusses the dilemma of choosing between growth and sustainability and the co-benefits of transitioning to a less carbon-dependent, renewables-based energy system from both, the global and Indian perspectives. In an emerging economy like India, the choice has never been clearer, and the case for choosing renewables and moving away from fossils, never stronger. The process of energy transition is complex and involves multi-sector reforms involving various stakeholders including civil society. The strategy to achieve the low carbon growth involves structural reforms, market reforms and institutional reforms.