Evolution of India’s Data Protection Law: A Primer

This policy brief is intended as a primer on the evolution of India’s data protection law. It briefly recounts how the law was developed through different drafts and consultations. It also provides a comparison of different versions of the law on its overall remit as well as provisions for data breaches, right to be forgotten, right to data portability, data localisation, exempted parties, impact assessment, institutional framework, harms, compensation and penalties. We find that the current version of the Digital Data Protection Act, 2023 has changed track on various provisions when compared to previous iterations.